Why I have joined the Liberal Democrats

In a recent, beautifully-written analysis of the current state of the Labour Party, Maurice Glasman has lamented the possible end of Labour as a national party of government. Tracing the rich social and cultural bonds that tied to party to its working-class base, Glasman observes how these bonds have weakened now to breaking point over the recent Brexit vote. Whilst nostalgic for this receding past, Glasman remains optimistic that these bonds can be renewed and the traditional soul of Labour revived.

The reality seems far less promising. Patterns of work and trade union membership that were the life-blood of Labour have been changing significantly over the past twenty years, weakening the sense of working-class political solidarity to which Glasman looks back. As the Labour Party’s traditional working-class foundations have eroded, its membership is increasingly made up of middle-class graduates more attuned to on-line protest than local community activism. Alongside this, fundamental internal tensions within Labour have fatally undermined its credibility and even an expected crushing defeat at the next general election offers little prospect that a coherent and united party will rise from the ashes.

As we see deepening political divisions and the rise of right-wing populism, it is more important than ever that we have a centre-left force in British politics that is able to make a credible and coherent case for government that is committed to both economic competence and social justice. With Labour no longer in a position to do this, I have decided to join the Liberal Democrats.

It is clear that the Liberal Democrats are not without their own challenges. The scale of the Lib Dems electoral collapse in the last general election was far more dramatic than any projections for Labour’s defeat at the next. Building from this weakened electoral base also means re-building trust with an electorate disillusioned with the Party’s coalition with the Conservatives.

But despite these challenges, I believe that the Liberal Democrats provide a strong platform for building a centre-left politics in rapidly changing times. The Party’s mission of seeking to create a society that balances fundamental values of liberty, equality and community recognises that sound politics is not about the rigid implementation of political dogma but the struggle to find practical ways of realising our (sometimes conflicting) values. Its strong history of building on local community politics makes it well-suited to recognising the importance of place and belonging as people struggle with the challenges of globalisation. Whilst acknowledging the valuable contribution that trade unions make to society, its lack of dependence on union funding also protects it from political currents in parts of the trade union movement that have contributed to Labour becoming increasingly out of touch with the public. Its emphasis on respectful, deliberative debate is vital at a time when democratic values are under threat and offers an attractive alternative to the increasingly toxic atmosphere that has prevailed in Labour under Jeremy Corbyn’s leadership.

In joining the Party, I am at odds with some of its recent past. The coalition with the Conservatives was, in my view, a mistake not to be repeated. A Party that positions itself on the centre-left of British politics cannot easily work as a junior partner with the Conservatives without compromising too deeply on its core principles. I also believe that the increase in student tuition fees was a mistake – and even had the dubious pleasure of being ‘kettled’ by the Metropolitan Police whilst attending one demonstration against it.  The costs of this policy through unpaid loans, and its effects in turning higher education into an unstable market-place, will become increasingly clear over time, and it is likely to need revision as we think again about the role and funding of university and technical education in Britain in the wake of Brexit.

Looking to the future, though, the Party has the capacity to offer bold policy ideas to address the major challenges that our country will have to face in coming years. The Conservatives’ desire to be seen as the default, competent party of government is too often tied in its political DNA to a reluctance to bring forward radical proposals – other than those which follow a free-market ideological dogmatism. But as the current state of our NHS shows, we are no longer at a point where slow, incremental solutions are likely to be enough. By contrast, the Liberal Democrats can draw on a longer history of radical policy innovation from Lloyd George to Beveridge to inspire ambitious thinking about how we fund and deliver the strongest possible welfare, education, health and social care provision for the twenty-first century.

We are at a time in our political life when our country desperately needs a positive vision of its future around which it can unite, and in which everyone can feel they have a valuable part to play. I believe that the history and values of the Liberal Democrats provide a strong foundation for this and am excited to join in this process.


Gordon Lynch

The sacred will of the people


It has felt, of late, as if British society stands on the edge of a precipice. The current divisions running through our country seem more profound than anything I have known in my adult life. What is most frightening is the way in which basic elements of our democracy – Parliament, the judiciary and open debate – are seen no longer as anchors for a decent shared life but contingent on their support for a particular kind of Brexit. Anything is in jeopardy if it does not bend to ‘the will of the people’.

I have written before about how deeply-charged conflicts arise over that which people take to be sacred. The notion of the ‘will of the people’ has come to take on such a sacred significance for many, an unquestionable moral demand that no person or institution should resist. Anything that stands against this popular will, and its vision of a free, proud and autonomous nation, becomes, by definition, a moral threat. MPs who raise searching questions, or judges who make inconvenient rulings, come to be seen as lacking in any moral legitimacy. They are stains to be cleansed for the sake of the public good.

In such emotionally-charged times, it is important to understand both the good and the dangerous. At its best, this deep moral investment in the ‘will of the people’ represents a fundamental yearning for a society in which people feel some connection with a greater story and community for their lives. We live at a time in which such connections have become significantly weakened. Old patterns of belonging, whether to communities, political parties, trade unions or churches have become the experience of a minority. Mobility, insecurity, isolation and change have taken their place. The proportion of single-person households has grown. Even the haven of belonging found in supporting a football team feels increasingly compromised by the commercialisation of the game, with the young millionaires performing on the Premiership stage seeming ever more remote from the lives of the fans who watch them.

It is hardly surprising, then, that people would be drawn to an idea of society that offers a sense of belonging too rarely found elsewhere, or that the EU (for which few even on the Remain side appeared to have any real love) had come to symbolise a fundamental sense of alienation. An awareness of these deep disconnections, and the struggle of daily life, may be dulled for those who enjoy the pleasures of a comfortable and cosmopolitan life. But for those who do not, the moment of Brexit has become a talisman for a renewed sense of power and belonging.

This desire for a society in which people feel part of their communities and more in control of their lives is not something to be feared but welcomed. The powerful emotions released by this need not be destructive but can, like other periods of sacred ferment, lead to a renewing of a sense of our social bonds.

There is danger here as well, though. This energy can stimulate new ways of thinking about what it means to be a purposeful society and to work together for a shared good. But its powerful emotional current can equally be manipulated by demagogues who have no apparent vision beyond exploiting it for their own power. To this end, they will lie and distort, stoke up anger at imagined enemies and set themselves up as protectors of a popular will which is at threat of being snuffed out by the dark forces working against it. This is the rhetoric of Nigel Farage, the Daily Mail and the Daily Express. It offers no hope, just an endless tearing down.

We need to find ways of speaking to this powerful sentiment for belonging, for meaning and for purpose, to offer ideas of a collective future that are realistic about the challenges we face but optimistic about our ability to work together in facing them. If we cannot do that, and if that articulation is left to the demogogues, racists and xenophobes, then our political life may be entering one of its darkest times for many decades.


Gordon Lynch

Beyond 52-48 politics

One of the most depressing features of the current US Presidential election is its demonstration of how deeply that country’s long-running culture wars have eroded the quality of its political life. When public life becomes so deeply polarised, the possibilities for constructive political debate and shared vision of national identity and goals become vanishingly small.

In the wake of the Brexit vote, Britain now stands on the brink of such corrosive division between the ideas of the ‘52’ (aka ‘the will of the people’) and the ‘48’ (aka ‘the progressive resistance’). Whilst there are doubtless deep political differences across our country, the mythologies now being created around these two separate groupings threaten to shape our collective life in a way that will ultimately benefit none of us.

One of the damaging features of such polarised identities is the way that they cast people into simple ‘types’, obscuring the ambiguities and uncertainties on which creative discussion of our national future will need to be based. The Leave vote, however, did not constitute a monolithic set of opinions about what post-Brexit Britain should look like, nor was it fundamentally an expression of mindless xenophobia. Principles such as ending the free movement of labour and transfer of sovereignty from Brussels to Westminster were doubtless central for many Leave voters – although the relative importance of varied amongst them. Similarly Remain voters cannot simply be depicted as ‘fifth columnists’, seeking to undermine the popular vote, or as liberal metropolitans itching to pour yet more scorn on those who already feel alienated by our current political system. If we allow our views of those who disagree with us on Brexit to be shaped by such cartoon-ish representations of them, our urgent need for inclusive and thoughtful political debate will be undermined.

We need a new political framework for our country that takes us beyond such images of the ‘52’ and the ‘48’. At its heart should be the principles that:

  • we recognise ourselves as members of a shared national community facing a radically new future in which we all do, and should, have a role to play in shaping for the good.
  • although our country has made many mistakes in the past, our national history and culture has more than enough examples of openness and generosity for us not to fear a society based on renewed interest about what it means to be English or British.
  • our society must be built on safe, vibrant and diverse local communities in which no part of the country feels left behind.
  • our society must be built on openness and generosity towards people of all faith, colour and nationality, recognising that contributing to our national good is not dependent on where you born. It will be a fundamental given that racism and intolerance has no part in a true pride in building our collective life.
  • a recognition that compassion can be resourced, but not imposed, by top-down policy, and that care and altruism need also to emerge organically from local communities.
  • our commitment to building the common good will involve fundamental re-thinking about the ways in which we support and provide education, health, welfare and social care, so that these are sustainable, respect human dignity and meet our national needs. This will involve a willingness to think boldly about all possible options and for those who have benefited most from globalisation to be willing to contribute more.
  • as we consider the different post-Brexit options available to us, we must try to think carefully with everyone who shares in good faith in this national project, understanding that underlying passionate disagreements can be a shared desire for the best for our country, and trying to find a resolution of these with which we can move forward with some sense of common purpose.

These are, of course, aspirations, but our ability to move forward in this spirit, or the divisions of the spirit of the 52-48, will shape the quality of our national life for many years to come.

Why I am resigning as a Labour Party member

The Labour Party has reached a watershed. The re-election of Jeremy Corbyn as leader has decisively confirmed the Party’s shift towards becoming an introverted social movement focused on protest and away from the hard work of policy-formation and bridge-building with the wider electorate. Whilst Jeremy Corbyn has made noises about reconciling the Party, his re-election campaign has never been about serious reflection about the failings in his leadership that led most Labour MPs’ confidence in him to collapse. For the wider Corbynite movement, it is about the re-assertion of a mandate which, as we have seen over the past year, is used to rebuff any criticisms of him, however reasonable they might be.

One of the striking things about his re-election is how robust support remains for him amongst the wider Labour membership despite the deep flaws that have been exposed in his leadership. To re-cap, over the past year, we have had very detailed accounts from previously supportive Shadow Cabinet Ministers about how chaotic planning and poor communication from the leadership has undermined their work. The panel of star economic advisors, paraded as a central element in restoring Labour’s economic credibility by John McDonnell, has collapsed, with the man originally credited for ‘Corbynomics’ now openly despairing about the leadership’s lack of coherence. MPs from across the political spectrum in the Party who tried to support his leadership have given up hope in him. And Jeremy Corbyn’s personal approval ratings amongst voters are the worst of any opposition leader since Michael Foot, with a majority of Labour voters from the 2015 General Election now believing Theresa May can make a better Prime Minister than him.

For a politician not to resign his leadership given such an overwhelming vote of no confidence from his MPs as Corbyn received was unprecedented. For him to be re-elected with such clear evidence of his failings is extraordinary. This has been possible only in the context of a culture in the Party in which Corbyn has become a totem, with his political competence and credibility less important for many than his ability to symbolise their values.

It is in the face of this now pervasive culture that I resign my membership of the Party. Many MPs have argued that the right response is to remain in the Party and fight for its future. But to suggest that it is possible to re-gain control of Labour by winning the battle of ideas assumes that the Party is still a functioning political environment for deliberative debate. Increasingly, though, being heard in the Party is dependent of proof of devotion to the Corbynite project, not the quality of one’s argument. To critique any aspect of the Corbyn leadership’s position is to become, by definition, a traitor in the eyes of many of his supporters. This culture will grow worse following his re-election as the loyalty expected to his mandate becomes ever more binding.

Labour MPs dismayed by this turn in the Party appear to be retreating to the backbenches to plan alternative Labour futures. But as their grip over the Party grows weaker, they have no strategy for re-gaining power beyond the hope that a catastrophic defeat in the next general election might make the Party membership more receptive to their arguments. The experience of the past year, however, gives little grounds for hope in this regard. If support for the Corbyn project could be weakened by such set-backs then there would already be much greater criticism of him amongst his supporters given his performance since last autumn. Instead, any evidence that Corbyn is leading Labour towards electoral disaster is blamed by them on disloyal MPs and a hostile ‘mainstream media’. One only needs to see the responses of many Corbyn supporters to Owen Jones’ sympathetic and moderate critique of the Corbyn leadership so far to understand that the culture of support around Corbyn does not encourage dissent.

Labour MPs are said to be virtually unanimous in their opposition to a split in the Party. But the Party is already split, irrevocably, between those who believe in Labour’s traditional model of seeking Parliamentary power and those who want to re-cast Labour as a radically democratic social movement whose primarily role is to articulate the sentiments of its core supporters. There are already two parties within Labour, which are now merely co-habiting under a single organisational structure and name.

There are many sitting Labour MPs whom I deeply respect and to whom I would give my time and money to ensure their continued influence in Parliament. But I also want to see them operating in a political environment in which they are free to develop a social democratic message that can reach across the country without fear or intimidation. For them to try to operate within a Labour Party under threat of de-selection or inevitable media interest in on-going battles within the Party will do nothing to help their ability to communicate with voters. There are so many urgent issues to which a social democratic response is needed, including Brexit, Syria and our growing crisis in health and social care. To devote more time and energy into internal battles with Labour, particularly in the absence of a credible strategy for victory in those, feels increasingly like an indulgence.

The electoral failure of the SDP is held up as an object lesson from history to prove the dangers of any overt split in Labour. But the first lesson one should learn from history is that no two sets of historical circumstances are the same. The formation of a new social democratic party would not be an easy project, but its fate cannot be assumed to be the same as the SDP mark I. The original SDP soon came up against a Labour Party, led by Neil Kinnock, which was aware of the need to modernise to appeal more broadly across the electorate. A better historical analogy for a new party formed out of Labour today would be if the original SDP had been competing against a Labour Party that Michael Foot continued to lead after 1983, and whose leadership then passed on to Tony Benn.

I cannot continue to give my support to what Labour has become under Jeremy Corbyn. I believe that social democratic politics and politicians deserve better than the Corbynite Labour Party. I wait in hope for that better alternative to emerge, as it surely will, as the chasm between the two parties within Labour grows ever wider.

Gordon Lynch

Corbyn and the new political Puritans

Last night, the local branch of my CLP gave overwhelming support to a motion in support of Jeremy Corbyn’s leadership. Compared to some accounts of recent CLP meetings, the discussion of the motion avoided the degree of hostility that has occurred elsewhere, but the manner of the support given to it clearly demonstrated the current plight of the Party.

For his supporters, Corbyn is the symbol and architect of the true socialist party for which they have yearned for so long. Years of alienation from mainstream party politics, and resenting the sharp edge of right-wing media, poured out in the fervent applause for declarations of loyalty to their leader.

Their support for him was also impervious to any critical reflection. The current conflict of the Party was presented as a simple Right/Left split. ‘Is he ‘Corbynite or Blairite?’, asked a confused member at one point, unable to place another speaker in the simple binaries of this narrative. Criticisms of Corbyn’s failure to work constructively with the PLP, to appoint a strong team around him or project a clear message to the country were met with dismissive groans. A speaker who had joined the party in 1951 and campaigned for it for decades since was initially heard with respectful silence until it became clear that his point was that Corybn was not electable, at which point others simply began to talk over him.

‘I’m fed up with a Party that’s just concerned with winning’, said one person. ‘Maybe Corbyn didn’t have a great Brexit campaign,’ said another, ‘but you have to say he’s got resilience.’ The point about his honourable struggle against a hostile right-wing Party and media was repeatedly made regardless of the fact that unhappiness against him stretches deep into the Soft Left and that Corbyn is now facing sustained criticism from the Daily Mirror. When I argued that it seemed unreasonable to accuse someone like Seema Malhotra of treachery when she had worked so hard to support John McDonnell and commissioned research that was instrumental in defeating proposed Conservative tax credit cuts, I was met with stony silence. Appeals made by me and some others to attempt to find some common ground were met with resounding indifference.

I am, in my day job, a sociologist of religion. I have never experienced an atmosphere like that Party meeting anywhere before outside of conservative religious groups who are deeply convinced of the truth of their way of seeing the world. The fact of the growing Party membership was, as in any committed Evangelical group, taken as confirmation of the moral rectitude of the movement, with no interest shown in whether connections with the wider electorate were being made.

Whilst there are individual supporters of Corbyn who remain courteous and thoughtful, the movement forming around him is, at its heart, a form of political puritanism, for which Corbyn is a model puritan leader. It is a movement of moral certainty, largely devoid of policy, fuelled by symbolic struggles against evil, treachery and compromise.

If we recognise this, the current leadership contest increasingly looks like another dead end. One of the characteristics of a puritan movement is that its sense of moral mission trumps all. Corbynist puritans will not allow their sense of purpose to be thwarted by a leadership election defeat – even if that were to happen. They will continue to organise, try to take over the running of CLPs, de-select ‘disloyal’ MPs where they can, and carry forward the fight which is never ultimately about forming a government but overcoming their opponents. Trying to fight with puritans is ultimately self-defeating as it merely re-energises their sense of being engaged in a grand moral drama, struggling against forces of darkness within and beyond their movement.

Whilst Neil Kinnock’s battle against the Militant Tendency in the 1980s should be remembered with great respect, his recent compelling call to the PLP to fight for control of the Party is arguably a mis-recognition of where we are now. His victory in the 1980s was made possible by the support of unions and a majority of the Party membership. Neither of those conditions hold true now. If the majority of the PLP and their supporters attempt to fight the Corbyn puritans for the Party, a protracted struggle will ensue in which our energy will be diverted from articulating a clear social democratic response to our current national crisis.

It is not defeatism but common sense now to initiate a clear split within the Party, even if this might mean letting go of the ‘Labour’ name. This is not a re-run of the 1980s, for what we are seeing is now not the equivalent of a split between an SDP and a gradually reforming Labour Party, but a split between the SDP and the Militant Tendency. We should not fear a significant division on the Left, because the Corbynist movement will, in time, turn in on itself as it finds new ‘traitors’ to blame for the electoral failures that will inevitably face them. There is a deep current in English cultural life that is antipathetic to puritan movements, with good historical reasons. We should trust those deep pragmatic sentiments in our national life, believe that a Corbynist movement left to itself will be banished to electoral obscurity, and take on the deeper challenge of ensuring that the one nation aspirations that Theresa May sought to lay claim to yesterday are genuinely realised as we enter this crucial period of national reconstruction.

Gordon Lynch

A call for an amicable divorce


The moving commemorations of the centenary of the start of the Battle of the Somme remind us of the savage depths that human conflict can plumb and the courage of those who lived through such times. Against this backdrop, some of the struggles in our current politics rightly seem trivial by comparison. As we remember the past today, though, this can give helpful pause for thought about how we manage these conflicts in the coming weeks and months.

There is no doubt about the powerful and painful emotions that the current conflict within Labour have unleashed. These will be felt particularly acutely by the Labour leadership and PLP who are at the centre of the storm, as well as journalists and commentators who receive strident attacks for any position they take on this. The emotions are amplified still further through social media in which there are always enough characters to insert a four-letter word but never enough for a nuanced argument.

Amidst this turmoil, it is worth pausing to reflect on what this conflict is about. This is not made easy by the polarised language that has become all too widespread in which the PLP are cast as traitors and anti-democratic and Momentum as nothing but a fanatical insurgency. Such ways of talking are reminiscent of a divorcing couple who need continually to rehearse the failings of their partner in order to find the emotional impetus for separation. But they obscure more complex realities. I disagree strongly with people in my local CLP who are committed supporters of the Corbynist turn in the Party. But I also recognise them as people who are deeply committed to values that I share and whose work for equality, care and tolerance in my local community I greatly respect.

So what is it that is tearing us apart? It is not the issue of opposition to austerity, despite the claims that were made for this as a distinctively Corbynist position in the leadership election campaign last year. The broad principle of addressing our on-going social and economic crisis through public infrastructural investment and a re-balancing of the economy has been well expressed by John McDonnell. But these principles are shared by a broad range of political progressives, including Vince Cable and Chuka Umunna, and supporting a struggling economy through investment rather than reliance on austerity was a central element in Alistair Darling’s response to the 2008 banking crisis. John McDonnell’s new fiscal rule of balancing the Government’s current account spending would also inevitably mean difficult decisions would have to be made about what forms of Government day-to-day spending would be prioritised over others within limited means.

On many policy issues, in fact, with the exception of foreign policy and defence, there is probably much in common between the two sides of Labour that are currently tearing themselves apart.

What is at stake though is not a specific policy agenda, but a more fundamental vision of the kind of political party that Labour should be. On the one hand, the majority of the PLP and their supporters, retain the aspiration of a majority Labour Government structured around a credible PLP able to draw support from a wide range of voters. On the other, there is the Corbynist vision of a political movement grounded in radical, participatory democracy which maintains an authentic socialist option in British politics even if this cannot achieve majority electoral support. To its critics, the failures of the PLP’s stance are writ large in the legacy of a war in Iraq in which a Parliamentary Party ignored its grassroots base to pursue a disastrous course of action. Critics of the Corbynist vision will argue that a Party shaped by the pre-occupations of a left-wing activist base risks becoming a narrow sectarian movement, intolerant of political opponents and detached from the real problems of policy-making. Both sets of criticisms are worth reflecting on.

It is these ultimately irreconcilable visions of the future of the Party that underpin the current ferocity of its internal conflict. The PLP and its supporters are terrified of the prospect of a permanently unelectable Party, no longer able to exert any meaningful influence during a crucial period of our national politics. Supporters of Jeremy Corbyn are equally dismayed at the prospect of losing a Party that has, for many of them, finally become a political movement with which they feel their deepest convictions are expressed.

The conflict will persist if we continue to think that only one of these political options can emerge out of the current Party. If both sides struggle to retain control of the name ‘Labour’, then this really is a zero-sum game in which a final resolution will come after much more energy and pain has been expended as one side achieves a deeply bruising internal political victory over the other. But if the struggle now is really over the Labour ‘brand’, the wider country will rightly judge the Party harshly over its self-indulgence in fighting over issues of political identity and organisational structure when far more urgent problems are at hand.

The solution, it seems clear now, must be to accept that these irreconcilable political projects need to find separate organisational structures. Managing this divorce constructively will require leadership and maturity from both sides, and the willingness to accept the losses that this will inevitably entail. But like any divorce, the way in which it is conducted will profoundly shape future relationships. From my side of that divide, I want a political future in which collaboration is still possible with those who support the Corbynist project on the many issues that we both care about, not for these relationships to be poisoned for years by on-going rancour. My hope is that those charged with the immensely difficult challenge of working these issues through can find the vision, generosity and boldness to make this possible.

Gordon Lynch

If our nation was an illusion, now we have to build one

For many, the shock of Brexit is still sinking in. Many Remainers are reacting, understandably, with a deep sense of loss, in which calls for a second referendum look more like denial in the early stages of bereavement than a credible political option. Even some who voted Leave now seem understandably disorientated by the sweeping forces of change that are being unleashed.

Perhaps one of the deepest shocks is the recognition that many middle-class progressives’ sense of security in their national home has been illusory. The idea that most people in Britain (or at least the ones that mattered) shared the same values and felt at ease in a globalised, cosmopolitan world has been shattered. We have been shown to be a deeply divided nation – or now more accurately a divided union of nations – in which the anger and resentment of those who have felt excluded by social change has now struck a profound blow to a political system in which they felt they had little stake. This shock is genuinely frightening, raising fundamental questions about the society that we are becoming.

If a progressive assumption about a national community has now been shattered, what is left in its wake is the political project of our generation. If our sense of nationhood has been shown to be an illusion, our task is nothing less than building a new nation.

It is essential that we now find political leadership that is up to this challenge. Whilst the scale of the task ahead is still unfolding, guiding principles for it can be found.

A first is that the country must more strongly be grounded in principles of equality. The Brexit vote has shown that no political system can thrive in which a substantial part of the population feel they are struggling to get the basic resources of a good life – work and a decent wage and home – and have little prospect of making their lives better. A real national community in which those who are more comfortably off are indifferent to such inequalities is not possible.

A second is that we must cultivate a politics of care – for each other, our traditions, our communities and our environment. The progressive embrace of social change must be tempered with the recognition of the need to preserve and cherish that which is good in our communities’ past and present.

A third is that as we begin to establish a new sense of national identity, the vicious racist sentiments that some people have felt emboldened to utter again in public must be shunned as poisonous to our collective life. Our nation has within it deep currents of decency and tolerance, and those who pollute those by abusing others on the basis of their ethnicity, religion or nationality must never be allowed to think that they speak for our country.

A fourth is that we must never lose sight of the importance of serious engagement with our common political life. If the Brexit vote has done anything, it has surely put an end to the myth that politics, and voting, never changes anything. If young people have not voted in sufficient numbers to bring about the Remain victory in which most of them believed, this will hopefully be the moment of recognition that the costs of political disengagement are too high. We need to continue to find ways of engaging people in public debate, whilst resisting the populism that rejects informed and well-evidenced argument in favour of the quick appeals of celebrity and rhetoric.

How we do this – even the party political structures and coalitions through which we do this – are still to be determined. But we need to move quickly beyond disorientation and despair to try to find new confidence in our ability to build a new national home for us all.